Update: This article was originally written before the United States Supreme Court ruling taking away a woman’s right to choose. It was published in the May 2022 issue of The Nicholson Nugget. If you are a pregnant woman and want to know your legal options, please contact the Law Office of Mark Nicholson for a free consultation.
Roe v. Wade
Although many likely know what the case of Roe v. Wade is about, it is important to educate those that do not and give everyone an understanding of the issues that will arise if this landmark case is overturned. Roe v. Wade was a decision made by the U.S. Supreme court “in which the court ruled that the Constitution of the United States protects a pregnant woman’s liberty to choose to have an abortion without excessive government restriction.” Recently, a draft was leaked from the U.S. Supreme Court showing they are ready to overturn the previous decision that has set a precedent for years.
The odds are many of us know or have heard stories about women getting an abortion, as it is not an unusual procedure. 1 in 4 women will have an abortion at some point. If this overturning of Roe v. Wade goes through, what could that mean for women? Currently, 26 states are certain or likely to ban abortion without the precedent of Roe v. Wade, and 12 states have “trigger laws” or bans that have been designed to automatically take effect if Roe v. Wade is overturned. This would cause women in the states where abortion is banned to 1) try to perform an unsafe abortion on their own or 2) travel hundreds of miles to receive a safe and legal abortion. These options are unrealistic and affect women of color and low-income individuals in a higher proportion.
Not only could this force women to take extreme measures to have an abortion, but it could also affect women who are not pregnant. Many women take precautionary measures and are on some form of birth control. However, birth control could be banned or become hard to access in states that ban abortion. Some women have possibly had a “scare” and decided to take an emergency contraceptive, such as Plan B, which could also be banned. Lastly, it could affect trans-affirming healthcare and fertility treatments, specifically those that produce leftover embryos.
Old White Men
So, how much more could these old White men with shriveled-up dicks be in a woman’s business? This should be, and continue to be, a women’s choice and no one’s business but her own. There are many reasons why women may choose to have an abortion. An entire list could be provided; it is unnecessary to do so because, again, all reasons women have abortions should be accepted and supported.
In this episode, Ally Krotov talks about modeling contracts. What are they? What do they mean for you as a model? What to look out for? This will help answer your questions. You can visit our Instagram portfolio at Allykrotov https://www.instagram.com/allykrotov/?hl=en
Also, attorney Mark Nicholson will discuss what a mistrial is. What happens when the judge declares a mistrial?
If you’re a first responder to an active shooter situation, you should know the basic steps for fleeing the scene. This article will cover the preparation for such an incident, fleeing, and training first responders in case of an active shooter situation. The following tips will help you stay safe during an active shooter incident and ensure your safety. Read on to learn more! Posted on July 22, 2016 by admin
Preparedness for a shooter incident
An active shooter is an intruder who is using firearms or bladed weapons to commit acts of violence against other people. These individuals may also be using vehicles, tools, or a combination of these. Since these incidents are unpredictable, it is essential to have a plan of escape. Once you’ve decided to leave the area, call 9-1-1 and follow the officers’ instructions. You should also be aware of what to do when the shooter makes your presence felt.
First responders will continue to respond until they determine that the environment is safe. In the meantime, officers may arrive in squads equipped with rifles, helmets, and vests. They may shout orders and push people to the ground. If you’re in danger, raise your hands. The police officers will then use force to rescue you. Remember to stay calm, raise your hands, and never resist a police officer.
Precautions for fleeing a shooter situation
If you have been in an active shooter situation, there are several tips to help you escape. First, you should immediately call 911, alert others not to enter, and keep your hands visible. Once you’ve heard the gunshots, try to flee in the opposite direction. If there is no safe way to flee, barricade yourself in a room. The last shots heard will signal law enforcement, who will be able to stop the shooter and help you escape.
In an armed conflict, don’t attempt to run from the situation. Instead, call 911 and explain the situation to the dispatcher. The information you provide will be crucial for law enforcement, and could include the number of shooters, their physical descriptions, and where they are located. If you do manage to get out, try to hide behind thick walls, turn off electronics, and close doors, windows, and shades.
Training for first responders in an active shooter situation
A lack of training can lead to disastrous outcomes. Training for first responders in an active shooter situation should include three key steps. In the first scenario, you should move away from the threat, create distance, and seek a safe place to hide or run to. In the second scenario, you should remain hidden or commit aggressive actions. You should also follow orders and obey law enforcement. You should not approach the active shooter or engage in physical contact with him.
The second phase of an active shooter scenario involves a post-event evaluation. This involves searching the majority of a room prior to entering, which can provide critical intelligence during a rapid response. By doing so, first responders have time to orient themselves, observe what is going on, and decide how to proceed. In the first phase, they may rush in blind, making themselves part of the problem instead of helping.
Alex Jones, the conspiratorial conspiracy theorist, has lost his trial. The jury ruled against him on Monday, and his trial was a complete travesty. He lied about a sexting scandal that has now blown up in his face, and his own legal team failed him. It is time for Alex Jones to step aside and give the families of Sandy Hook, Newtown and other victims of mass shootings a fresh start.
The infamous conspiracy theorist, who founded InfoWars, has lost his latest trial. A jury found him guilty of spreading lies about the Sandy Hook school shooting, a mass shooting that killed 20 children and six adults. The jury found Jones liable for $4.11 million in damages, and the Sandy Hook families were awarded $3.33 million. In addition to these losses, the verdict will likely lead to more lawsuits against Jones.
Although the judge ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, Jones can’t argue that his statements are protected by the first amendment. Moreover, the jury’s first instinct may be to punish Jones more severely than it deserves, since the Sandy Hook murderers allegedly staged the attack to promote gun control. Consequently, Jones’ lawyers may not be able to convince the jury that his statements are only hyperbolic opinion or exaggerations.
During the opening arguments, Reynal referred to himself as ‘Perry Mason,’ an expert in winning defamation trials by convincing witnesses to confess to crimes. Bankston even asked Jones if he knew the definition of perjury. Jones responded by saying that he did not. He then sat down with a handwritten definition of perjury. Jones then lost his appeal.
I’m going to tell you how to sell feet pictures online to make money, honey! There are many locations to legally buy and sell foot images in America, but online is the most convenient. I’ll explain to you how to sell pictures of feet online. I want you to understand how to profit from selling images of feet.
How can you sell your foot online and make hundreds of dollars? Selling my feet online brought in roughly $70,000 for me. I never had to expose my face or any other body part, nor did I have to give out any personal information like my actual name, home address, or email.
Over 1,500 images of feet are available for purchase on the reputable website Etsy. On this marketplace, most photos cost $10 or more.
On Instafee.com you can set your price, post material, and establish a profile. After creating your seller profile, you can begin publishing your photographs.
One of my favorite websites, Feetfinder.com, is another location to sell pics of feet. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat are other platforms via which you can advertise yourself.
Bundling or combining photosets allows you to charge more than you would for a single image with little additional work. If you execute it correctly, your customers will think they are getting a deal and frequently choose the more expensive bundle rather than just one photo.
You may join public groups on Kik, a mobile messaging software, to send instant messages to users and participate in what are effectively chat rooms. You may find public feet groups using the search option, join them, share your images, and begin generating leads from there.
Making $7,000 Per Month Online Selling Photos of Feet
Selling foot pictures is an easy side hustle and it is legal. Try OnlyFans if you’re having trouble with other websites or don’t have a fan base to help you promote yourself. It has a big network of enthusiastic individuals about buying, selling, subscribing to, and following anything related to feet.
You decide how much to charge for a monthly subscription. People cannot sell the identical original photos or videos elsewhere. Before a buyer makes a purchase, you can blur the visuals.
Once authenticated, you can post pictures, tag them with the appropriate category, and describe the setting. If you are a novice, it is prudent to set lesser prices.
Depending on how much work you want to put in, how many followers you have, and how in-demand you are, you may expect to pay anywhere from $5 to $500 or more per photo or bundle. Utilize a free image editor like Canva to always add a watermark to your photographs.
Become a Member of a Foot Fetish Group to Gain Fans
Create an account to join social media platforms. Join one of the many Facebook groups dedicated to foot fetishes and selling feet pics. To get a sense of the group’s vibe, browse through them.
Be sure to read the group guidelines to avoid being banned for your first post. You won’t need to go out and find people if you have fans and following because they will come to you. This can bring you a potential buyer.
You must inform potential customers if you are in the feet-selling business. You can achieve this by promoting your company on other social media sites like Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.
Make a Facebook page or a blog.
Another tried-and-true method of making money while blogging about feet is by placing adverts on your blog. On Etsy, you might see that many vendors have had luck selling feet images and earning money there. Once their identities have been verified, vendors can begin selling feet pictures on the website after approval.
Men and women who sell images of themselves are quickly gaining popularity and, well, making money. I am unsure of the number of foot picture buyers and sellers because most use aliases to conceal their identity. Using a page makes it simpler to connect with more of your prospective Facebook users. Data about the performance of your page will be available, allowing you to make improvements.
First, request payment.
Request payment in advance of sending any images of your feet. Giving up a free sample allows customers to choose the type of feet pictures they want to purchase. It is also a quick way to gather supporters.
When you post your photos, you can blur them; customers get the original, unblurred image when they buy your feet pictures. Consider conducting a quick internet search on how to capture images of feet to improve your feet photos.
You can increase your regular income by adding the proceeds from your foot business.
Choose the Proper Platform to Sell Feet Pics
Choose three or four platforms to sell your feet pics online. Find ones you think will work for you and be active on them. Joining many platforms can help you stand out and increase your earnings from feet picture sales.
Additionally, you might incorporate a storefront right inside your blog, allowing visitors to buy photographs from you without ever leaving. It’s important to remember that unlike other websites, which are controlled, scammers will exist, and it’s up to you to take safeguards.
Here are a few locations where you can market and sell your feet.
1. Instagram (we suggest following our good friend Paintyto35)
Publishers and news organizations occasionally purchase foot images, mainly when writing about feet or producing an article that calls for a foot image. Foot models make a lot of money. To make your foot photographs stand out, you must use creativity.
Because they are more visible, Snapchat and Instagram are ideal for selling feet photos, and online stores offer stock pictures. A website called Foap will share your images with its affiliates, including Getty Images.
Those who have a foot fetish, therefore, desire to purchase images of feet. For those folks, pictures of your feet have some erotic appeal, and they are willing to pay for it. Selling feet photos has the cool feature of allowing you to sell one image to numerous different customers.
I enjoy how simple it is to use, and I’ve used Feetfinder to sell photos of my feet. Your height and weight are asked for on the model application form. Photos taken with Feet Finder are automatically blurred and given to prospective customers as a preview before purchase.
Apply lotion, touch up your nail polish, and remove any toe rings, temporary tattoos, jewelry, etc., before you start filming. If you are going to sell feet pics to earn extra money you want to make sure have the proper foot care.
Additionally, you can actively look for potential customers who place “wanted” advertising and approach them directly. Once more, it’s all about the keywords, so utilize a straightforward header and description that outlines your offering. Your personal page, photos, and all of your other content needs to be optimized using tags and keyword-rich descriptions.
All of these strategies for marketing feet have advantages and disadvantages. Some of these methods need more setup and technical skill, but they are potentially lucrative ways to monetize your Instagram foot photos. Whatever platforms you choose, you aim to grow a fan base for your feet photos. Simply conduct a fast search on YouTube to see hundreds of recordings of individuals who have attempted to sell images of their feet for money.
Try to maintain soft, clean feet. However, some people prefer having rough feet. You should spend a little cash on pedicures, foot scrubs, and masks.
Your feet are more likely to sell if they appear better. You must safeguard your feet as a priceless asset and money-making machine if you make them a part of your business.
Some might believe there are only a few options for photographing your feet. Stay away from boring routines, change the scene and use your imagination. I enjoy taking images of my feet while traveling, occasionally in open settings like restaurants, the beach, and even in the snow.
Buyers have requested that I wear specific footwear, have fake tattoos, step in mud, be tied up, and perform other actions that I doubt my editor will approve of (see my other article that he barely approved). Of course, you ought to charge more for these unique photos of your feet.
It’s vital to remember that many people have a love of feet, including some of the most everyday people you know. It’s not strange or unusual; if you are approaching it that way, you shouldn’t be walking your feet down this road.
If you’re suffering from chronic pelvic pain, you might be wondering what exactly pelvic floor therapy is. There are several techniques involved in pelvic floor therapy, and each one is beneficial in its own way. Learn about the benefits of pelvic floor therapy and its techniques to find out whether it’s right for you. Here are some important details to keep in mind before you get started. Listed below are some of the main techniques, as well as their precautions and results.
Pelvic floor therapy is hands-on treatment for the problem, aimed at resolving pelvic pain. It may include internal or external interventions, depending on the symptoms that a patient is experiencing. External therapy may involve nerve release, trigger point therapy, deep tissue massage, skin rolling, joint mobilization, or biofeedback. Patients may benefit from a combination of external and internal therapies. In either case, the treatment is effective for treating pelvic pain.
Pelvic floor therapy includes a range of exercises to strengthen and relax the area, including the pelvic muscles. Therapists can also use manual techniques, such as a finger, to help break up adhesions and release pressure from specific points on the pelvic floor. Depending on your condition, a physical therapist may also use ultrasound or cold laser therapy to treat scar tissue. Several types of pelvic therapy may be combined to provide the best relief for your pain.
The physical therapy for pelvic floor disorders involves educating the patient about the anatomy of the pelvic area, teaching posture, and movement. Patients may also learn about the importance of breathing properly and practicing diaphragmatic exercises. They may also participate in manual manipulation or pelvic floor exercises. Depending on the type of pelvic floor disorder, physical therapy may include other treatments, such as medication, exercise, or manual manipulation. Results of pelvic floor therapy may vary for each patient, but in general, the sessions focus on pain relief and improving quality of life.
As with any medical procedure, there are certain precautions when using pelvic floor therapy. It is essential to be aware of these before starting the procedure. Unlike surgery, however, the risks of pelvic floor therapy are much lower. The procedure involves gentle electrical stimulation to improve awareness of pelvic floor and abdominal wall muscles. The therapist may also use real-time ultrasound to determine the coordination of pelvic floor muscles.
While most private and public insurance policies cover the cost of pelvic floor therapy, many out-of-pocket expenses are not covered by insurance plans. Medicare, for example, only covers pelvic floor therapy up to $1,900 per year. Beyond that, patients must pay the cost out-of-pocket. Private insurance plans often limit how many sessions patients can receive and require proof of improvement. Fortunately, if you suffer from pelvic floor dysfunction, physical therapy may be an effective treatment option.
As the trusted Real Estate advisor for her clients, she understands that selling and/or buying a home is complex and deeply personal. There is also a lot at stake financially. Summer Wilson understands the market, the players, and all of the variables, which makes her an expert. This perspective on the process and the responsibility felt toward her clients drives her to truly go above and beyond. Her goal is that her clients feel supported and that they have a trusted advisor to get them to the finish line.
You can follow her on
FB: Summer Wilson
Call her at 317-430-2277
The interview with Summer Wilson will air on June 19, 2022, at 12:30 AM on WHMB TV40.
My Top Gun Maverick movie review will deal with Cruise’s role as a fighter pilot who must pass on his knowledge to a new generation of young men. This is not the same Maverick we know, but the same pilot and the same challenges. Maverick has to deal with new challenges on the mission and his relationship with his son Goose. But that’s not all; this is also one of the best films of Cruise’s career.
While the film has a female lead, it doesn’t feel very authentic. The dialogue is still Hallmark Naval academy-era dialogue, and the plot is clumsy, but it has more pacing and a tighter screenplay. The film even has Goose’s son and an impossible mission, a common trope in action movies. I’m not sure if this makes the film better, but I’m glad I got to see it anyway.
Unlike most action movies, Maverick isn’t entirely about Cruise, though. He’s an excellent rogue, and he loves being given impossible odds. In fact, he even makes Jon Hamm pucker in frustration. And, of course, there’s the whole “rogue-ism” aspect, which is always a good thing in my book. But even with all of that, the action is a bit more realistic than Maverick.
While Tom Cruise tries to bring in-depth to his signature character, he doesn’t overstep his own core qualities. Jennifer Connelly is good as Maverick’s love interest, and Teller gives one of his most memorable performances since Whiplash.
I highly recommend seeing this movie. I watched it at the Indiana State Museum’s IMAX, the largest movie screen in Indiana.
The current study is an assessment of safety risks in Indiana county jails over the last ten years. The study looks at several measures that contribute to the existing safety standards and alternatively, contributing factors to the increased safety risks related to the consequences of incarceration in Indiana county jails. Individuals in a county jail are awaiting trial, unable to make bail, or serving a sentence for a low-level criminal offense.
Studies have found that since 2010, at least one person died every two weeks in a county jail. Death as a result of unsafe jail conditions is deprivation of due process and a punishment for indigence. Death and public safety risks are important for safe communities that agency officials can significantly reduce through mitigation efforts. This study evaluates the risks and primary consequences of incarceration and the impact on public safety through public safety risk assessments. Recommendations and implications for policies are included to ensure safer communities and mitigate danger while incarcerated or held in a county jail during the pendency of judicial proceeding.
Keywords: county jails, incarceration, public safety, death, risk, HIV, tuberculosis
Incarceration in Indiana County Jails: A Risk Assessment
County jails typically hold two kinds on inmates. Some remain for only a few days while others serve sentences of less than a year. Most of the detainees held in county jails are held temporarily while they wait for their day in court. Individuals who are charged with a crime and waiting for pretrial conference, jury trial, or cannot afford to pay the specified bail amount are also held in county jails. Individuals may experience detainment for traffic offenses.
There are approximately three-thousand county jails in the United States that are managed by county sheriffs or local police departments. Understaffing, lack of funds, and no enforceable national standards to ensure jails meet constitutional requirements for inmate health and safety contribute to national and local public safety. The consequences and public safety risks for individuals and communities are significant because an individual released on pretrial release, paid the full amount of bail, or the criminal case was subsequently dismissed may introduce infections to their community.
The waiting period for release from a county jail is potentially fatal and poses a serious public safety risk to communities upon release. Ninety-two Indiana counties each operate a jail with a daily head count of forty-seven thousand (47,000) and an annual population of one hundred twenty-two thousand (122,000). Indiana has an incarceration rate of seven hundred
sixty-five (765) per one hundred thousand (100,000) people, including prisons, jails, immigration detention, and juvenile justice facilities, meaning that it locks up a higher percentage of its people than any democracy on earth. In 2018, twenty thousand six hundred forty-one (20,641) inmates were held in an Indiana county jail per day (Carson, 2021). Between 2008 – 2018, the number of deaths in Indiana county jails averaged twenty deaths per day (Carson, 2021).
Public safety risks upon an individual’s release from jail include tuberculosis (“TB”) and human immunodeficiency virus (“HIV”). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”), TB is caused by a bacterium that attacks the lungs, kidney, spine, and brain. Individuals infected with TB can easily spread it to friends, family members, community members, or coworkers. TB bacteria spread through the air when a person with TB coughs, speaks, or sings, and a person nearby breathes in these bacteria and become infected (CDC, n.d.). HIV attacks the body’s immune system and is fatal if left untreated (CDC, n.d.). HIV easily transmits to family members, namely from having sex and from mother to baby. Sharing needles, syringes, and other drug injection tools are ways this fatal disease can spread in a community. A rare but other method of infection is being injured with a contaminated sharp object (CDC, n.d.).
From 2000 to 2018, detainees not convicted of a crime were three times as likely to die in a county jail than an inmate who is serving a short sentence (Carson, 2021). As with any community living space, security measures at county jails keep detainees and jail staff safe, however residual risks (DHS Risk Lexicon, 2010), pose a threat to public safety. In 2020, the State of Indiana reported twenty-six deaths, with suicide accounting for half of those deaths.
Inmate deaths in 2020 averaged seventeen across the top ten Indiana Counties (ICJI, 2021).
A conditional probability (DHS Risk Lexicon, 2010) of an individual who will either threaten or attempt suicide is higher among those who suffer from drug or alcohol intoxication. Almost half of those who die by suicide do so within the first seven to fourteen days of incarceration (Carson, 2021). Prioritizing assessment and treatment over incarceration would drastically reduce the number of deaths and risk of spreading TB and HIV to communities.
Further, community-based resources provided to inmates during the reentry period would reduce
the risk of spreading infectious diseases. Local county jails do not have the resources afforded to state and federal prisons, where inmates serve longer sentences.
Inmates in county jails lack the resources afforded to state prisons but have similar needs.
County jails are in dire need of resources to combat the risk of death and combat the spread of infectious diseases. County jails pose the largest threat to community safety due to the relatively short time of incarceration. Overcrowding and lack of medical care and testing due to an absence of funding and resources allows infectious diseases to flourish in county jails. County jails do not have reporting requirements for deaths, number of infectious disease cases, and death as a result of infectious diseases that the state and federal prison system have. It is difficult to implement good policy to combat this issue without proper data and documentation.
A risk-based approach is appropriate for standard reporting measures and recommendations for treatment programs and assessments. The data available involving deaths within the first two weeks of detainment in county jails and the rate of infection are expected consequences. Uncertainties are those cases where detainees say they are not at risk of harming themselves upon initial intake and subsequently threaten or attempt suicide. Alternative futures analysis would assist local government officials, sheriff departments, and police departments on funding needed to implement safe practices and testing for inmates and detainees (Aven, 2015). Literature Review
Risk of Death While Incarcerated
In January 2022, approximately one thousand five hundred (1,500) inmates were being transferred from the local jails in Marion County, Indiana, namely Jail 1 and Jail 2 to the new Community Justice Campus. During this transition, one man who had just arrived at the new Community Justice Campus days prior died by suicide. In 2021, over one-thousand inmates at
the Marion County Jail in Marion County, Indiana, threatened suicide. The Marion County Sheriff’s Office reported ten suicide attempts and seven deaths by suicide (Spinelli, 2022). Marion County Sheriff Kerry Forestal stated detainees are asked if they are at risk of harming themselves during booking into the jail. Allocating mental health resources to Indianapolis’s Adult Detention Center at the Community Justice Campus is one way the Marion County Sheriff’s Department is addressing this residual risk phenomenon (Spinelli, 2022).
The plight of mental illness is four to six times higher for detainees than the general population. Incarceration or short-term confinement has a significant impact on the health and safety of detainees as the risk of suicide is higher in jail than prison. The rate of death and suicide in county jails are greater than in state prison. This is due to the immediacy of an individual’s arrest, specifically the cause and the result of the arrest (Littman, 2021). The lack of mental health care in the United States is egregious, but even more problematic in county jails. Jails are notoriously understaffed, and detainees who suffer from mental illness and at risk are overlooked and die from abuse or neglect (Littman, 2021; Spinelli, 2022).
The reporting mechanism for deaths and suicides in county jails is nonexistent, as there is no required reporting system for county jails like state and federal prisons. Similarly, county jails are managed by elected sheriffs who have little control over the budget, construction, and renovations of a new jail. Reporting deaths and death by suicide is largely at the discretion of the sheriff and county jail staff (Littman, 2021; Reuters, 2020). Jails refused to disclose their death tolls respectively, so over the course of a decade, a separate investigation by Reuters uncovered detainee deaths in five hundred large jails across the country (Littman, 2021).
From 2009 – 2019, the death rate in Marion County Jail in Marion County, Indiana was more than double the national average with approximately forty-five deaths. The Marion County
Jail is a sixty-five-year-old facility, and the county has not had a new jail built or renovated in over fifty years (Reuters, 2020; Spinelli, 2022). Over this period of time, two consecutive elected sheriffs implored local officials for funding to hire more staff and build a new facility, but were subsequently dismissed. Reuters (2020) notes the following:
In 2016, the sheriff called the suicide problem an “epidemic,” but county officials denied requests for more funding. While the county knew it had a suicide problem, there was no way to know how it compared. Like all other officials, Marion County’s leaders had no access to the Justice Department figures.
Overcrowding and understaffing is a main cause for concern for jails across the country, and there is no exception for the local county jails in Indiana. Suicide accounts for more than twenty-five percent of all deaths in county jails in the United States, and Marion County Jail has an average of three to five deaths for every one-thousand inmates (Reuters, 2020).
Reuters investigators sent over one thousand five hundred public record requests to five hundred county jails that hold seven hundred fifty or more inmates per day, requesting information necessary to collect data on inmate populations and deaths. A visualization of how the number deaths in local county jails in the State of Indiana compare to deaths in the Marion County Jail is presented in Figure 1.
Consequences and Public Safety Risks for Communities
The conditional probability (DHS Risk Lexicon, 2010) is high considering inmates who are released from county jail often return to low-income communities. Inmates who return to society after they served their sentence are at a higher risk of chronic, infectious, and mental illness, largely due to substance abuse in economically disadvantaged communities. Access to health services is challenging for individuals reentering society, together with a lack of mental
health services. HIV is prevalent in economically disadvantaged communities and five times higher in incarcerated populations.
Deaths per Year in Indiana County Jails and Marion County, Indiana
Note: Data derived from Bureau of Justice Statistics and Reuters Dying Inside.
Additionally, individuals who reenter into society engage in high risk behavior, namely abusing substances and do not practice HIV prevention procedures. Lack of housing and employment are factors that contribute to substance abuse post-release (Luther et al, 2011).
Economic deprivation and failure to obtain employment and suitable housing are contributing factors to criminal behavior as a response to stress. To cope with stress, an individual will engage
in substance abuse (Agnew, 1999). Inmates who are from low income neighborhoods are more likely to suffer from substance abuse and are at an increased risk of becoming infected with HIV or TB. Local county jails do not have the budget to test incoming inmates for infectious diseases. By the time the new inmates have spent some time in the community living space, other inmates have been exposed and are at risk of contracting the disease.
County jails do not have the budget to test or treat inmates before they are released from jail. Community members are exposed when these individuals return to their communities.
Additionally, the reintroduction of substance use as a coping mechanism for stress experienced from reentry repeats the cycle of reckless social behavior and further exacerbates the spread of HIV in these communities. This issue is exacerbated by overcrowding, another budgetary constraint for county jails (Kane and Dotson, 1997; Littman, 2021; Reuters, 2020).
Twenty-four jails in south and southcentral Indiana were used in a study that assessed the risk of HIV in rural jails. A questionnaire and follow up interviews were used to collect data. The data showed that the inmate population in these jails largely understood the risks and transmission of HIV and preventative measures, namely using condoms, sterile needles, and abstinence. Condoms and sterile needles are items not available in jails and contributes to the spread of HIV within the jails (Kane and Dotson, 1997), which presents reoccurring problems during reentry.
More contagious than HIV that is prevalent in county jails is TB. TB is spread by coughing, sneezing, or laughing, by an infectious person through airborne droplets (Kane and Dotson, 1997; CDC, n.d.). Overcrowding increases the risk of contracting HIV and TB. Similarly, inmates with limited access to health care and are HIV positive are at an increased risk of becoming infected with TB, as TB is a cofactor of HIV infection (Kane and Dotson, 1997).
In 2018, twenty-eight counties in Indiana reported cases of TB. Marion County, Indiana had the highest number of TB cases from 2009 through 2018, with over thirty-eight percent of all cases in the state of Indiana (ISDH, 2019). In 2016, there were reportedly five hundred twenty- eight TB cases that resulted in death in county jails in the United States.
TB-related deaths have increased in Indiana between 2014 through 2018, with the number of TB-related deaths being four, two, five, six, and ten respectively. Of the ten deaths in 2018, eight were directly related to TB infection, with two cases being diagnosed with TB after death (ISDH, 2019). A visualization of the number of TB cases and related deaths in Indiana county jails are Indiana presented in Figure 2.
TB will continue to be a problem in county jails if resources Transmission of M. tuberculosis continues to be documented within correctional facilities, primarily as a result of undiagnosed TB. Inmates with undiagnosed TB disease place other inmates and correctional staff at risk for TB, and when released, these persons also can infect persons living in surrounding communities.
In 2016, Mayor Hogsett’s Criminal Justice Task Force recommended prioritizing assessment and treatment over incarceration for those who struggle with mental health or substance abuse disorders at the new Community Justice Campus (“CJC”). The CJC was built on Indianapolis’s southeast side of downtown and includes the Marion County Jail. Recently, the Department of Justice awarded a one million dollar grant to the Marion County Sheriff’s Office to increase their programs, namely a suboxone program that provides medically assisted treatment for individuals going through detox (Spinelli, 2022).
Tuberculosis Cases in Indiana from 2009 to 2018 compared to TB-related deaths from 2014 to 2018.
Note: Data derived from Indiana State Department of Health.
The inmate mortality data collected by the Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics are withheld from the public, citing a law enacted in 1984 that limits the release of the data.
Due to the discretionary release of death data and nonexistent reporting methods, local government officials could use a Bayesian Probability (DHS Risk Lexicon, 2010) model to create policies to reduce the risks posed to communities. Data collected from the Marion County Sheriff’s Office suboxone program and programs implemented at the CJC may condition the need for local reporting standards and funding for local county jails.
State and federal prison systems routinely test for infectious diseases (Littman, 2021; Reuters, 2020). Inmates in county jails are serving shorter sentences and return to the community in a shorter amount of time than inmates in state or federal prisons. Infections spread more rapidly in county jails. Moreover, state prison systems have reentry programs that assist inmates in obtaining a driver’s license and find suitable housing and employment. These resources are not extended to county jails.
Interventions in prisons and community treatment after release provide great success for Inmate HIV, TB, and substance abuse (Luther et al., 2011). Funding for continued HIV and TB tests for incoming detainees and current inmates should be afforded to county jails. Programs implemented to mitigate the risks of substance abuse and recidivism shall reduce the risk of transmission and keep communities safe.
By: Jennifer M. Tursi, Candidate for Master of Science in Criminal Justice and Public Safety Paul H. O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs
Agnew, Robert. 1999. “A General Theory of Community Differences in Crime Rates.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 36:123-155.
Aven, T. (2015). Risk Analysis. (2nd ed). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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As many Americans own dogs, it is important to recognize how they are feeling. These feelings may interfere with their health or appetite. Recent studies show that stress may go unrecognized in dogs.
There are common stress inducers such as fireworks, thunderstorms, or particular people. Although they may not be able to verbally tell us when they are stressed, there are many ways to visually see when a dog is stressed.
A dog may begin pacing back and forth. For most, this sign is most common prior to eating a meal or going outside. However, when not linked to a particular characteristic it may be stress induced. It provides focus, or a distraction to ease the stress inducer. This should be noted for a better understanding of the dog’s behavior. Unfortunately, age plays a part in this as well. If the dog is rather on the old side of the age scale, it may be a signal of dementia.
Barking & Whining
Another common indication of stress may be frequent barking or whining. Again, if there is no key link behind the act, it could be that they are trying to say they are stressed or anxietal. Some owners may implement a punishment for bad behavior. In the event this occurs, it will be more difficult to look out for the dog’s health.
A more obvious sign of discomfort is growling. It comes across as aggressive unwanted behavior, but it is for a reason. This reason may be a preemptive warning sign of worse behavior. It is best to properly utilize a distraction to minimize any future damage. Growling is easy to recognize as a method of communication, but it must be handled efficiently.
The new study was found by The University of California. It surrounds the concept of the high magnitude of hearing in dogs. For example, microwaves, vacuum cleaners, and smoke detectors. These are all commonly used items that most people would not link to induce stress in their dog. A dog’s reaction may include shaking, locking up, or cowering away.
While pet owners rely on their furry-legged animals for comfort, they rely on owners to create the best possible habitat for them. All these items tend to be used on a frequent basis. Hence, it is best to look at the dog and decide on a remedy for the situation. Short-term distractions such as toys or walks are great. However, perhaps a sibling may be a long-term distraction. If these symptoms continue to persist, a trip to a local veterinarian may be the most beneficial to understanding.